Radiation produces reactive oxygen species that modify macromolecules such as protein and lipid by oxidation and act in many pathological processes, causing serious damage to the brain. This study sought to evaluate the effects of radiation and the protective effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the brain tissue of guinea pigs based on the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation. Thirty-two guinea pigs were divided into groups of eight animals each: control group (group I); radiation group (group II); NAC group (group III), and NAC administered before radiation exposure group; (group IV). Guinea pigs in groups II and IV were exposed to Co-60 radiotherapy using the Source-Axis-Distance = 80 technique. The levels of protein carbonyl content and malondialdehyde (MDA), which is a marker for lipid peroxidation, were investigated by the Evans-Levine and Uchiyama-Mihara methods, respectively. The protein carbonyl and MDA levels of group II were significantly greater than those of group I (P < .01). The protein carbonyl and MDA levels of group IV were lower than those of group II. The difference between the MDA levels of group IV and group II was significant (P < .01); however, the difference in protein carbonyl levels between the two groups was not significant. The results indicated that radiation increased protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in the brain, and NAC administration before radiation exposure may aid in the treatment by decreasing protein and lipid oxidation.