Objectives: Our objective was to analyze the results of tym-panosclerosis surgery using over-underlay tympanoplasty and to find out the effect of single-stage surgery on hearing results. Materials and Methods: Forty-two patients who were operated on for tympanosclerosis between July 1998 and February 2002 were included in the study. These were one-stage tympanoplasties, because second-stage operations and revisions were not included. Operative records and audiograms of the patients were obtained. Of the patients, 48% had bilateral tympanosclerosis. In three (7.1%) of the patients, tympanosclerosis and cholesteatoma occurred concomitantly. The cog was present in eight (20%) of 40 mastoidectomies. Korner's septum was present in nine (22.5%) patients. The graft take rate was 95.2%. Results: The pre- and postoperative air-bone gap values of the patients were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Thirty-three percent of the patients met the successful hearing criteria (air-bone gap <20 dB). However, 47% had an air-bone gap closure between 20 dB and 30 dB, whereas 20% had a gap of more than 30 dB. Conclusion: Single-stage surgery does not result in a satisfactory hearing improvement in most of the patients with tympa-nosclerosis. Only one third of the patients, most of whom had a mobile stapes, had satisfactory hearing results. Mobilization of a fixed stapes is not an effective option for hearing restoration in tympanosclerosis. Second-stage surgery for stapedec-tomy and placement of a prosthesis-like piston or total ossicular replacement prosthesis should be considered to obtain better hearing results in tympanosclerosis.