This retrospective study aimed to shed light on the management options of endometrial polyps diagnosed before or during intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. The study included all fresh ICSI cycles performed in the Anatolia IVF Center between July 2005 and January 2009. Group 1 consisted of 47 patients who were diagnosed with an endometrial polyp before their ICSI cycle. All patients diagnosed with an endometrial polyp by transvaginal ultrasonography before the ICSI cycle underwent hysteroscopic polyp resection. Group 1 was compared with 47 matched control patients without endometrial polyps who underwent standard ICSI cycles (group 2). Group 3 included 128 patients diagnosed with an endometrial polyp during stimulation in their ICSI cycles. Group 3 was compared with 128 matched control patients without endometrial polyps who underwent standard ICSI cycles (group 4). Patients diagnosed with an endometrial polyp before ICSI cycles were similar to their controls with regard to clinical pregnancy (29.8% versus 38.3%) and live-birth (25.5% versus 31.9%) rates per transfer, as were patients diagnosed with an endometrial polyp during ovarian stimulation (clinical pregnancy rates 45.3% versus 46.9%; live-birth rates 40.6% versus 39.8%). In conclusion, further studies are required to identify the most appropriate management of endometrial polyps. (C) 2011, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.