The incidence of childhood cancers has been gradually rising worldwide. The rate of leukemia, which is the most common cancer type in childhood, has been increasing as well. In recent years, multiple chemotherapeutic agents, radiotherapy and bone marrow transplantation have been using in leukemia treatment. Children receiving treatment for leukemia may experience many symptoms due to the disease and its treatment. These concurrent symptoms may have a complex relationship. The aim of this paper is to review and compile current literature data related to symptom clusters used to explain multiple symptoms that occur in a complex structure due to leukemia and its treatment. Symptom clustering is used in oncology nursing to explain the complex relationship among multiple symptoms and to find out the effects that symptoms have on each other and patient outcomes. There are generally two statistical approaches to modeling symptom clusters. One is to establish the symptom clusters by grounding on clinical experiences, while the other is to establish them according to the results of statistical analysis and then clinical experiences. With the latter method, symptom clusters can be established more objectively and more number of symptoms can be assessed. In the literature, there are four instruments available for the measurement of a large number of symptoms in children. It is important to increase use of symptom clusters in nursing care for a better understanding of the relationship among multiple symptoms experienced during leukemia treatment, a more effective symptom management, and a more holistic care.