Solid triclosan/cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (TR/CD-IC) were obtained and then incorporated in poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanofibers via electrospinning. alpha-CD, beta-CD, and gamma-CD were tested for the formation of TR/CD-IC by a coprecipitation method; however, the findings indicated that alpha-CD could not form an inclusion complex with TR, whereas beta-CD and gamma-CD successfully formed TR/CD-IC crystals, and the molar ratio of TR to CD was found to be 1:1. The structural and thermal characteristics of TR/CD-IC were investigated by H-1 NMR, FTIR, XRD, DSC, and TGA studies. Then, the encapsulation of TR/beta-CD-IC and TR/gamma-CD-IC in PLA nanofibers was achieved. Electrospun PLA and PLA/TR nanofibers obtained for comparison were uniform, whereas the aggregates of TR/CD-IC crystals were present and distributed within the PLA fiber matrix as confirmed by SEM and XRD analyses. The antibacterial activity of these nanofibrous webs was investigated. The results indicated that PLA nanofibers incorporating TR/CD-IC showed better antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria compared to PLA nanofibers containing only TR without CD-IC. Electrospun nanofibrous webs incorporating TR/CD-IC may be applicable in active food packaging due to their very high surface area and nanoporous structure as well as efficient antibacterial property.