Targeting lactate metabolism and glycolytic pathways in the tumor microenvironment by natural products: A promising strategy in combating cancer


Kooshki L., Mahdavi P., Fakhri S., AKKOL E., Khan H.

BIOFACTORS, vol.48, no.2, pp.359-383, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 48 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/biof.1799
  • Journal Name: BIOFACTORS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.359-383
  • Keywords: cancer, glycolysis, lactate, natural products, therapeutic target, tumor microenvironment, KINASE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN-2, HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR-1, GLUCOSE-METABOLISM, C-MYC, CELL-PROLIFERATION, OXIDATIVE STRESS, DENDRITIC CELLS, DOWN-REGULATION, BREAST, DEHYDROGENASE
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Anticancer drugs are not purely effective because of their toxicity, side effects, high cost, inaccessibility, and associated resistance. On the other hand, cancer is a complex public health problem that could intelligently adopt different signaling pathways and alter the body's metabolism to escape from the immune system. One of the cancer strategies to metastasize is modifying pH in the tumor microenvironment, ranging between 6.5 and 6.9. As a powerful determiner, lactate is responsible for this acidosis. It is involved in immune stimulation, including innate and adaptive immunity, apoptotic-related factors (Bax/Bcl-2, caspase), and glycolysis pathways (e.g., GLUT-1, PKM2, PFK, HK2, MCT-1, and LDH). Lactate metabolism, in turn, is interconnected with several dysregulated signaling mediators, including PI3K/Akt/mTOR, AMPK, NF-kappa B, Nrf2, JAK/STAT, and HIF-1 alpha. Because of lactate's emerging and critical role, targeting lactate production and its transporters is important for preventing and managing tumorigenesis. Hence, exploring and developing novel promising anticancer agents to minimize human cancers is urgent. Based on numerous studies, natural secondary metabolites as multi-target alternative compounds with health-promoting properties possess more high effectiveness and low side effects than conventional agents. Besides, the mechanism of multi-targeted natural sources is related to lactate production and cancer-associated cross-talked factors. This review focuses on targeting the lactate metabolism/transporters, and lactate-associated mediators, including glycolytic pathways. Besides, interconnected mediators to lactate metabolism are also targeted by natural products. Accordingly, plant-derived secondary metabolites are introduced as alternative therapies in combating cancer through modulating lactate metabolism and glycolytic pathways.