Silymarin (Silybum marianum) has some protective effects against drug toxicity (cisplatin, acetaminophen, adriamycin, gentamicin etc.). Colistin is a strong antimicrobial, which is frequently used in the treatment of resistant gram-negative bacterial infections in recent years although it has nephrotoxic potential. This study was aimed to determine the role of silymarin against colistin-induced acute nephrotoxicity (CIN). Rats were randomly divided into four groups. The control group was treated with tap water whereas groups 2 and 3 received silymarin (orally, 100 mg/kg/day) and colistin (intraperitoneally, 750.000 IU/kg/day) for seven days, respectively. Group 4 received both 750,000 IU/kg/day colistin and 100 mg/kg/day silymarin for seven days. After euthanasia, histopathological and biochemical examinations were completed for the kidney tissue specimens and blood samples. All parameters of the control and silymarin groups were similar. Severe weight loss was seen in the groups receiving colistin (groups 3 and 4). Silymarin significantly increased glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase levels when administered with colistin in group 4 only. Acute tubular injury, tubular necrosis, meduller congestion, interstitial inflammation and apoptotic indices of colistin group were significantly higher than the control group. The administration of colistin with silymarin (group 4) was able to make some improvements in tubular necrosis and significant increase in antioxidant capacity. Silymarin increased antioxidant enzyme activity only when used in combination with colistin. The effects of silymarin may become more pronounced when used at higher doses or with a longer duration of treatment and may prevent nephrotoxicity.