The genetic diversity of high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits in 18 cultivated emmer wheat landrace populations, originating from Turkey, was investigated using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The mean number of alleles (n (a)) and effective alleles (n (ea)) were observed as 3.67 and 1.53, respectively. The mean values of expected heterozygosity (gene diversity) (H (e)) and average heterozygosity (H (e,av)) were calculated as 0.31 and 0.12, respectively. Actual genetic differentiation (D) and gene flow (N (m)) between the different populations were observed as 0.24 and 0.16, respectively. Statistical analysis of Pearson's correlation, multiple regressions and principal component analysis indicated that eco-geographical variables have a significant effect on HMW-glutenin diversity. Considering the dramatic decrease in genetic diversity of modern high-yielding cultivars, the conservation of genetic diversity in these wheat landraces, and in other old cultivars, is important for improving modern monocultures and their ability to resist biotic and abiotic conditions caused by climate changes, thus generating a wide adaption to a variety of environmental conditions. Adoptation measures for germplasm conservation of Turkish emmer wheat landraces and utilisation of their germplasm for improvement of modern wheat varieties were discussed in this study.