Endometritis is an inflammatory disorder of the endometrial lining of the uterine tissue in postpartum stage. Endometritis mostly progresses subclinically and causes infertility through the disruption of the hormonal balance. It has been shown in many studies that resveratrol has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, the possible beneficial effects of resveratrol in endometritis have not been determined yet. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the treatment potential of resveratrol in an experimentally induced endometritis model in rats. Endometritis was induced in 12-week-old female, nonpregnant, Sprague Dawley rats. The animals were divided into six groups: control (NaCl 0.9%) and endometritis (NaCl 0.9%), marbofloxacin + PGF(2 alpha), marbofloxacin, marbofloxacin + resveratrol, and resveratrol groups. To induce endometritis, 5 mg/kg/s.c. progesterone was given for 5 days, and then Escherichia coli (50 mu l, 1 x 10(5) cfu/rat) was injected in the right cornu uteri following laparotomy. Sixteen hours after bacterial inoculation, the treatment protocol was applied for 14 days. At the end of the experiment, the total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were examined spectrophotometrically in uterus tissues. The severity of inflammation in uterus samples and follicular activity in ovarian tissues were histopathologically evaluated. In addition, serum cytokine levels were determined. While TAS in uterine tissue significantly increased in the resveratrol group when compared to that of the other groups (p < 0.05), there was no difference between the groups in TOS (p > 0.05). The inflammation of the endometrium and the numbers of corpus luteum in the endometritis group were highly significant when compared to those of the other groups (p < 0.05). The recovery of inflammation and follicular activity were similar to those of the other groups in resveratrol group. However, it was realized that resveratrol administration reduced serum cytokine levels. According to the results of the current study, resveratrol was found to be effective in the treatment of endometritis with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions.