Dichlorvos is an organophosphorus insecticide that is used worldwide for pest control in agriculture and household use. Vitamins C and E are potential antioxidants protecting cells from oxidative stress. Vitamin C+ vitamin E, dichlorvos, a combination of vitamin C+ vitamin E + dichlorvos, or corn oil (control) were given to rats via oral gavage for 7 weeks. Body and testis weights, sperm parameters, hormone levels, histo- and cytopathological changes in testes were investigated at the end of 24 h and the 4th and 7th weeks comparatively with the control group. Body and testis weights, sperm morphology, FSH, LH, and testosterone levels were decreased significantly at the end of 4th and 7th weeks in the dichlorvosand vitamins + dichlorvos-treated groups. A statistically significant decline in sperm motility and testosterone levels occurred by the end of 7th week in the dichlorvos- and vitamins + dichlorvos-treated groups. Light and electron microscopy revealed necrosis, edema and cellular damage in testicular tissues of the dichlorvos- and vitamins + dichlorvos-treated rats at the end of 4th and 7th weeks. In conclusion, dichlorvos caused subacute and subchronic reproductive toxicity, but vitamins did not confer protection. (C) 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.