S. grandis Freitag, Vural & N. Adiguzel is an endemic plant species to Turkey. Since some other Salsola species have been reported to exert cholinesterase inhibitory effect, we aimed to investigate its inhibitory potential against AChE. The EtOH extract and thirteen constituents [ ten flavonol derivatives; e.g. isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (1), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (2), quercetin-3-O-metylether (3), tiliroside (4), isorhamnetin-3-glucuronide (5), isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside (6), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (7), quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (8), quercetin (9), and manghaslin (10), two oleanane-type saponosides; e. g. momordin II b (11) and IIc (12) as well as one amino acid derivative, N-acetyltryptophan (13)] isolated from the aerial parts of Salsola grandis (Chenopodiaceae) were tested for their possible inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), related to pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Although the EtOH extract was inactive, among the isolated compounds, only compound 13 exerted a notable inhibition of 64.90 +/- 1.61% at 50 mu g mL (1), while compound 12 displayed a low inhibition (21.72 +/- 0.99%). Then, compound 13 was further subjected to molecular modeling experiments in order to give insights about its interactions at atomic level with AChE. The data indicated that N-acetyltryptophan (13) could be a promising model molecule for AD treatment. a 2016 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.