Bufavirus (BuV) is a newly-identified parvovirus in the family of Parvoviridae. Metagenomic analysis of fecal samples from children in Burkina Faso with acute diarrhea showed a highly divergent parvovirus, which was named bufavirus (BuV). The global distribution, epidemiology and genetic characteristics of BuVs infections are obscure. It was first discovered as an agent causing gastroenteritis but the association of BuV infections with various clinical presentations mostly remain to be explored. The aims of this study were to investigate probable impact of BuV in central nervous system infections in a region where it was previously reported to cause human infections and to detect enteroviruses (EV) which are reported as a cause of central nervous system infections in our country. The study was undertaken in three institutions in Ankara province, Central Anatolia, Turkey. Patients, clinically diagnosed with febrile disease and/or central nervous system infections of presumed viral etiology, were enrolled in the study with informed consent. Cerebrospinal fluid specimens were collected from 93 children attended to Gazi University Hospital and Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Hospital from October 2011-April 2015 and 33 adult patients, attended to Hacettepe University Hospital from June 2012 to March 2013. Clinical history and follow-up, physical examination and standard laboratory findings of the patients were recorded. Nucleic acid extraction was performed via commercially available spin-column assays and complementery DNA (cDNA) synthesis was performed by using commercially available cDNA synthesis kit with randomised hexamer primers. BuV detection was carried out by in house nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) utilized with previously-described primers. EV detection was carried out by in house PCR with panenterovirus primers. Seventy-four percent (93/126) and 26% (33/126) of the patients were children (0-18) and adults (19-86), respectively. In all patients, bacterial, mycobacterial and fungal cultures were negative, as well as PCR for herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. PCR results of all samples were negative for BuV and EV. This is the first study that evaluates a probable association of BuV and central nervous system infections. Although Parvovirus B19, a well-characterized human pathogen can rarely cause encephalitis, our findings did not confirm such an association for BuV in this preliminary investigation. However, long-term evaluation of individual cases with unknown etiology is required to reveal the relationship of the virus with specific environments.