Permethrin is belonged to pyrethroids that are one of the substances developed as an alternative to pesticides. Permethrin, which is used especially in agriculture, can bioaccumulate in the water and sediment when mixed into aquatic ecosystems. For this reason, it is necessary to investigate the effect of this substance on aquatic organisms other than the target organism. The aim of this study was the determination of acute and sublethal effects as antioxidant enzyme levels on different organs and hemolymph biochemistry of the non-target aquatic organism, narrow-clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus), after exposure to permethrin, one of the synthetic pyrethroid pesticides, contaminating aquatic ecosystems due to its increase usage. The invertebrate model organism, the narrow-clawed crayfish, was selected for its bioindicator role in food webs as planktivorous grazers epibenthic scavengers and good alternative models in ecotoxicology studies with the importance in conservation of freshwater ecosystems. The 96-h LC50 value of permethrin to experimental species was estimated as 0.903 mu g/L (95% CI = 0.5042-2.2734 mu g/L) with probit analysis method. The sublethal concentration of the permethrin was determined by 1/10 of 96-h LC50 values as 0.09 mu g/L. There were two control (negative and acetone) groups in the experiment. The sampling of hemolymph and the tissues (gills, hepatopancreas, and muscle) were done 48 h and 96 h after exposure of the permethrin. The total hemocyte counts significantly increased in the 96-h exposed group of permethrin (p<0.05). Among the hemolymph biochemical parameters, the hemolymph potassium and chloride values increased statistically (p<0.05). Malondialdehyde levels (MDA) of gills and muscle were significantly increased, whereas the MDA level of the hepatopancreas was significantly decreased at the end of the experiment (p<0.05). Hyperplasia in the lamella was recorded in gills, while the degenerations of the hepatopancreas tissues were observed. According to obtained results, permethrin was extremely toxic as acutely to narrow-clawed crayfish and also effected at sublethal concentrations.