Objective. The aim of this study is to contribute to the understanding of schizophrenia genetics by using efficient algorithmic examination techniques including dysmorphic examination, karyotyping, and Fluoresence in situ hybridization (FISH). Methods. In this study we have investigated 20 familial schizophrenia patients from Turkey who had an affected first-degree relative. Dysmorphic examination of the schizophrenia cases and their relatives have been performed. High resolution banding (HRB), specific centromeric, subtelomeric and 22q11.2 region FISH probes were used for genotyping of patients. Results. Dysmorphic examination revealed ear, palate, nose, columella anomalies, and obesity in contributing patients, and the pale skin was noticed. The medical histories and clinical findings of two schizophrenia twins were almost identical. HRB study demonstrated the presence of 46, XX/47, XXX/48, XXXX constitution in a paranoid schizophrenia case and 46, XX/45, X karyotype in her mother. FISH studies aiming subtelomeric chromosomal regions revealed no rearrangements and 22q11.2 regions were intact in all of the patients. Conclusions. The parental gonadal mosaicism lying at the origin of the mitotic aneuploidy may be the reason for mosaic X chromosome aneuploidies in our mother-daughter schizophrenia couple. Mosaic X chromosome aneuploidies may accompany schizophrenia cases and may contribute to pathogenesis of familial schizophrenia.