Background/aim: Pneumoperitoneum with high pressure results in decreased glomerular filtration rates (GFRs). Cystatin-C (Cys-C), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and interleukin 18 (IL-18) are new parameters in the evaluation of GFR instead of creatinine. The aim of this study is to show the effects of pneumoperitoneum on renal function with the help of these new acute kidney injury markers. Materials and methods: Sixty rats were divided into 10 groups according to the length of time and degree of pneumoperitoneum pressure achieved during CO2 insufflation: 0 mmHg (control) for 1 h; 4 mmHg for 1, 2, and 4 h; 8 mmHg for 1, 2, and 4 h; and 12 mmHg for 1, 2, and 4 h. Serum samples were obtained to measure the serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), Cys-C, NGAL, and IL-18. Results: There were no differences between the serum creatinine levels of the groups. Serum levels of BUN, Cys-C, NGAL, and IL-18 were significantly increased in the 2nd hour of the experiment. This increase was more prominent at high pressures. Conclusion: Although serum creatinine is a practical way of estimating GFR, it has been shown that Cys-C, NGAL, and IL-18 are superior in the estimation of decreased GFR in pneumoperitoneum.