Deep Metric Learning: A Survey

Kaya M., Bilge H. Ş.

SYMMETRY-BASEL, vol.11, no.9, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 9
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/sym11091066
  • Journal Name: SYMMETRY-BASEL
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Keywords: metric learning, deep metric learning, similarity, siamese network, triplet network, DISTANCE, NETWORKS, FACE
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


Metric learning aims to measure the similarity among samples while using an optimal distance metric for learning tasks. Metric learning methods, which generally use a linear projection, are limited in solving real-world problems demonstrating non-linear characteristics. Kernel approaches are utilized in metric learning to address this problem. In recent years, deep metric learning, which provides a better solution for nonlinear data through activation functions, has attracted researchers' attention in many different areas. This article aims to reveal the importance of deep metric learning and the problems dealt with in this field in the light of recent studies. As far as the research conducted in this field are concerned, most existing studies that are inspired by Siamese and Triplet networks are commonly used to correlate among samples while using shared weights in deep metric learning. The success of these networks is based on their capacity to understand the similarity relationship among samples. Moreover, sampling strategy, appropriate distance metric, and the structure of the network are the challenging factors for researchers to improve the performance of the network model. This article is considered to be important, as it is the first comprehensive study in which these factors are systematically analyzed and evaluated as a whole and supported by comparing the quantitative results of the methods.