In this study for developing potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory compounds, we synthesized 6-acyl-2-benzoxazolinone and 6-acyl-2-benzothiazolinone derivatives with acetic acid and propanoic acid side chain, and performed preliminary screening of their in vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities at a single dose of 100 mg/kg in mice by a p-benzoquinone-induced writhing test and a Carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model, respectively. We also determined their gastric ulceration effects in the tested animals. Propanoic acid derivatives were generally found to have higher analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, and among them, 3-(6-benzoyl-2-benzothiazolinon-3-yl)propanoic acid (Compound 4a) exhibited the highest analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. However, all compounds showed lower anti-inflammatory effects than we observed for indomethacin at 10 mg/kg dose. Consequently, 6-acyl-2-benzoxazolinone/2-benzothiazolinones having propanoic acid side chain might lead to further studies for developing better candidates with potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects while acetic acid derivatives do not exhibit comparable satisfactory features.