Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer, with about 48,000 deaths each year worldwide. Growing evidence suggests that individual nutrients or dietary patterns might have important roles in the prevention of melanoma. Considering that melanoma is a potentially life-threatening cancer, novel protective and adjuvant treatments are needed to improve its prognosis. Curcumin is a bioactive substance extracted from rhizome of Curcuma longa L. Its global market is expected to grow in the next few years, especially in the pharmaceutical industry, due to its numerous physiological and pharmacological properties. For this review, we collected the available data on the protective and therapeutic role of curcumin against melanoma. We also discuss the chemistry, dietary sources, bioavailability, and metabolism of curcumin, and the mechanisms of action of its potential anticancer effects at the molecular level. Current challenges and future directions for research are also critically discussed.