Clinical Features and Treatment of COVID-19

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Yildiz P., DİZBAY M.

GAZI MEDICAL JOURNAL, vol.31, pp.255-259, 2020 (ESCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 31
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.12996/gmj.2020.66
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier
  • Page Numbers: pp.255-259
  • Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, clinical features, treatment, DRUGS
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was identified as the cause of clustered pneumonia cases in Wuhan, a city in the Hubei Province of China. The virus rapidly spread to the rest of the world after a huge epidemic in China and WHO has declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted via respiratory droplets and fomites during close unprotected contact. The airborne spread has not been established as a major route of transmission. The mean incubation period of the illness is 5 days and it mainly presents with fever and respiratory symptoms. Myalgia, loss of taste and smell, diarrhea and dermatological findings are also common during the course of the disease. Laboratory findings are nonspecific. Significant elevations in inflammation markers can be observed in some patients due to cytokine storm. Typical CT findings are bilateral ground glass opacities and consolidation with peripheral and lower lobes distribution. COVID-19 causes mild symptoms in most cases, however it may progress to severe pneumonia leading to ARDS and death, especially in those with advanced age and comorbid diseases. There is no specific effective antiviral treatment for COVID-19. A number of in vitro effective agents have been identified. These agents such as chloroquine phosphate/hydroxychloroquine, favipiravir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir are widely used in the treatment of the disease. Convalescent plasma therapy and the cytokine inhibitory agents such as tocilizumab, used to treat disease-induced cytokine storm, are particularly preferred in the treatment severe cases.