The prevalence of hip osteoarthritis (OA) varies greatly across different geographic areas. Limited data exist about the prevalence of radiographic hip OA in the Turkish population. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of radiographic hip OA in Turkey utilizing a random sample. That sample consisted of radiographs filed at the Department of Urology, Gazi University Hospital, Ankara, and included patients aged 25 years and older (range 25-97 years). Plain supine abdominal radiographs and intravenous pyelographies were evaluated using the Kellgren and Lawrence (K&L) grading system. Evaluations were made of 1,248 hips in 682 patients (205 women and 477 men). Overall, 8.8% of the hips evaluated had radiographic hip OA (K&L grade 2 or higher). Both hips were visible in 566 patients. Of those patients 11.7% had radiographic hip OA in either one or both hips (9.4% of women and 12.6% of men), and 51.5% of whom had bilateral findings. Prevalence increased with age and was 1.9%, 16.1%, and 21.5% for age ranges 25-39, 40-54, and 55 years and older, respectively. Patients aged 40 years and older had significantly more radiographic hip OA than those younger than 40 years (P <0.001). Men had a higher frequency than women after the age of 40 years, but this did not reach statistical significance. In most patients radiographic findings indicated only mild disease. Three patients had grade 3 disease and only one patient (aged 68 years) had grade 4 disease. Among patients aged 40 years or older, 1.1% had grade 3 or 4 disease. These findings suggest that K&L grade 2 OA changes emphasizing osteophytes at hip joints are not uncommon in the Turkish population, especially among those aged 40 years and older. However, frequency of moderate or severe radiographic hip OA may be low.