Ethnopharmacological relevance: Cynarin is an artichoke phytochemical that possesses a variety of pharmacological features including free-radical scavenging and antioxidant activity. The origin of artichoke species appears to be Mediterranean region. Two of these species, globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L.) and cardoon (Cynara cardunculus var. altilis DC), are widely cultivated and consumed. This vegetable, as the basis of the mediterranean diet, has been used as herbal medicine for its therapeutic effects since ancient times. Therefore, this study was performed to determine genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of cynarin against MMC (mitomycin C) and H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) induced genomic instability using chromosome aberrations (CAs), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), micronucleus (MN), and comet assays in human lymphocytes.