Flavopiridol Induces Apoptosis via Mitochondrial Pathway in B16F10 Murine Melanoma Cells and a Subcutaneous Melanoma Tumor Model


Gokce O., DOĞAN TURAÇLI İ., ÖNEN H. İ. , ERDEM O. A. , Kayaa E. E. , Ekmekci A.

ACTA DERMATOVENEROLOGICA CROATICA, vol.24, no.1, pp.2-12, 2016 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 24 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Journal Name: ACTA DERMATOVENEROLOGICA CROATICA
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.2-12
  • Keywords: malignant melanoma, flavopiridol, apoptosis, proliferation, DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR, CYTOCHROME-C, FAMILIAL MELANOMA, POTENT INHIBITION, IMPROVED SURVIVAL, DRUG-RESISTANCE, NUCLEAR ANTIGEN, MEK INHIBITION, ER STRESS, BRAF
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Flavopiridol is a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor that promotes cell cycle arrest. We aimed to examine the anti-proliferative effects of the flavopiridol and oxaliplatin combination on p16INK4A deficient melanoma cells B16F10 and also its apoptotic effects on a subcutaneously injected B16F10 allograft melanoma tumor model. Flavopiridol and oxaliplatin treated B16F10 cell viability was determined by MTT assay. C57BL6 mice were injected with B16F10 cells and treated with flavopiridol after tumor implantation. BRAF and BCL2L1 mRNA expression levels were measured using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Caspase 9 and caspase 3/7 activity were determined by activity assay kits. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) protein expression levels were analyzed immunohistochemically. Flavopiridol and oxaliplatin decreased cell death. Flavopiridol enhanced caspase 3/7 and caspase 9 activities in vitro and in vivo in a dose dependent manner via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Even though there was a significant increase in Bcl-2 staining, PCNA staining was decreased in flavopiridol-administered mice. Decreased PCNA expression showed antiproliferative effects of flavopiridol which might be the result of cell-cycle arrest. Flavopiridol can be used as a cell cycle inhibitor, which induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway, independently from BCL2 in B16F10 cells and B16F10 injected C57BL6 allografts.