Activation of Liver X Receptors by GW3965 Attenuated Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt Hypertension-Induced Cardiac Functional and Structural Changes

BAL N. B. , HAN S. , USANMAZ S. E. , KİREMİTCİ S., SADİ G., Uludag O. , ...More

JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR PHARMACOLOGY, vol.74, no.2, pp.105-117, 2019 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 74 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1097/fjc.0000000000000693
  • Page Numbers: pp.105-117


In this study, the effect of liver X receptor (LXR) activation on hypertension-induced cardiac structural and functional alterations was investigated. Hypertension was induced by deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt administration in uninephrectomized rats for 6 weeks. LXR agonist GW3965 (3-{3-[(2-chloro3-trifluoromethyl-benzyl)-(2,2-diphenyl-ethyl)-amino]-propoxy}-phenyl)-acetic acid was given for the past week. Rhythmic activity and contractions of the isolated heart tissues were recorded. Biochemical parameters were assessed in ventricular tissue and plasma samples. Cardiac expressions of various proteins were examined, and histopathological evaluation was performed in the left ventricle and liver. GW3965 reduced systolic blood pressure and enhanced noradrenaline-stimulated papillary muscle contraction induced by DOCA-salt + uninephrectomy. Plasma and tissue total antioxidant capacity (TAC) increased and tissue 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) levels decreased in the DOCA-salt group. GW3965 elevated plasma and tissue TAC levels in both of groups. Glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP78), phospho-dsRNA-activated-protein kinase-like ER kinase (p-PERK), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (NF-kappa B p65) expression was augmented, and inhibitor-kappa B-alpha (I kappa B-alpha) expression was reduced in hypertensive hearts. The altered levels of all these markers were reversed by GW3965. Also, GW3965 ameliorated DOCA-salt + uninephrectomy-induced cardiac and hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. However, GW3965 unchanged the plasma lipid levels and hepatic balloon degeneration score. These results demonstrated that LXR activation may improve hypertensioninduced cardiac changes without undesired effects.