Retinopathy of prematurity is a pathophysiological condition that occurs in relation to abnormal proliferation in the retinal vessels in premature babies. Its exact pathogenesis is not known. In Turkey, the increased chance of survival in premature babies with much younger gestational age and much lower birth weight in parallel with the developments in neonatal care causes retinopathy of prematurity, which has led to vision problems and blindness to emerge as a more frequent problem. Early diagnosis and timely and appropriate treatment of retinopathy of prematurity contributes to the developmental process and increases the quality of life by preventing vision loss. It should be kept in mind that retinopathy of prematurity may also lead to serious medicolegal problems.