Metals have been studied as potential chemotherapeutic agents for cancer therapies due to their high reactivity toward a wide variety of substances. The characterization of metal ion-binding capacities is essential to understand the possible effects of metals on target biomolecules. In the present study, biochemical effects of Au(III) and Ga(III) ions on calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were studied comparatively via bioanalytical, spectroscopic, and thermal methods. Briefly, UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were utilized for spectroscopic characterization, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) measurements were performed for thermal analysis. Our results reveal that both Au(III) and Ga(III) ions are capable of interacting with ctDNA, and Au(III) ions display a more favorable interaction and a higher binding affinity. ITC analyses indicate that the Au(III)-DNA interaction displays a binding affinity (K-a) around 1.43 x 10(6) M-1, while a K-a around 1.17 x 10(5) M-1 was observed for the Ga(III)-DNA binding. It was suggested that both metal ions are unlikely to change the structural B-conformation while interacting with ctDNA.