The anatomical, palynological and leaflet and fruit micromorphological properties of two Astragalus L. species, namely A. falcatus Lam. and A. odoratus Lam. attributed to the section Uliginosi Gray (Fabaceae) from Turkey were considered via light (LM) and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) in order to determine their these characteristics and to assess the diagnostic value of these properties as taxonomic evidence. The leaflets type in terms of the anatomy, the type of stomata and trichomes, the shape and aperture of pollen grains and also the surface ornamentation of the fruits and trichomes are similar in these two species. Anatomical features such as the shape of the stem and petiole, the absence or presence of pith cavity in the stem and the number of vascular bundles in the petiole possess a systematic importance. Bifurcate trichomes are present on both surfaces of the leaflets. The ornamentation of trichomes is verrucate. The surface pattern of fruits is reticulate. The pollen grains are isopolar, radially symmetrical, trizonocolporate and prolate-spheroidal. Exine sculpturing is found to be a valuable characteristic for separating these species.