In vitro and in vivo degradation of oxidized acetyl- and ethyl-cellulose sponges


Elcin A. E.

ARTIFICIAL CELLS BLOOD SUBSTITUTES AND BIOTECHNOLOGY, vol.34, no.4, pp.407-418, 2006 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 34 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2006
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/10731190600769701
  • Journal Name: ARTIFICIAL CELLS BLOOD SUBSTITUTES AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.407-418
  • Keywords: acetyl cellulose, biocompatibility, degradation, ethyl cellulose, periodate oxidation, polymer sponge, scaffold, tissue engineering, GROWTH-FACTOR, TISSUE, BIOCOMPATIBILITY, BIODEGRADATION

Abstract

The objective of this study was to assess the in vitro and in vivo degradation properties of macroporous sponges composed of oxidized acetyl-cellulose ( AC; 45.000 Mw) and ethyl-cellulose ( EC; 50.000 Mw). The sponges were constructed by solvent-casting and particulate-leaching technique using a polymer concentration of 2.5 and 5.0% ( w: v), and periodate oxidation. The resulting sponges were: AC2.5, AC5.0, EC2.5 and EC5.0. While AC sponges exhibited a gradual degradation overtime, EC sponges had a very slow in vitro mass loss. In general, sponges made up of 2.5% ( w: v) polymer content degraded faster than the ones with 5.0%( w: v). The sponges degraded faster at pH 5.0, compared to pH 6.0 and 7.4 conditions. About 60%, 44% and 31% of dry mass loss was determined for AC2.5 sponges after 60 weeks at pH 5.0, pH 6.0 and pH 7.4 conditions, respectively; thus, ca. 21%, 13% and 12% of dry mass loss from EC2.5 sponges was observed at the same pH conditions, in the same order. The in vivo degradation studies were performed on Wistar rats ( n = 24) for a duration of 60 weeks. In general, all sponge implants were well-tolerated by the subjects. While granulation tissue or fibrotic capsule was not formed around the sponges, neovascularization was observed. AC and EC sponges demonstrated an in vivo degradation behavior quite similar to that observed for the in vitro study conducted at pH 5.0 conditions. Histomorphometric analysis revealed that the in vivo degradation of AC2.5 and EC2.5 after 60 weeks was about 47% and 18%, respectively. The results indicate that oxidized acetyl cellulose may be considered as a partially degradable scaffold material for tissue engineering applications.