The objective of this study was to reveal the likely genomic instability in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) using micronucleus (MN) assay on buccal epithelial cells (BEC). We investigated the frequencies of micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies, such as nuclear buds, binucleated cells, condensed chromatin, and karyorrhectic and pyknotic cells in BEC. Children with CKD were grouped as follows: children in the pre-dialysis (PreD) stage (N=17), children on regular haemodialysis (HD) (N=14), and children who have undergone transplantation (Tx) (N=17). As a control group, twenty age-and gender-matched healthy children were selected. The MN frequency in BEC of all groups of children with CKD was significantly elevated (5-to 7-fold) as compared to the control group (p<0.001). In contrast, the frequencies of nuclear buds were not significantly higher in the study groups compared to the control group. The frequencies of binucleated cells and condensed chromatin cells were significantly higher in all subgroups of children with CKD relative to the control group (p<0.001). Our results show that the BEC of pediatric PreD, HD, and Tx patients with CKD display increased cytogenetic, cytokinetic, and cytotoxic effects. They also point to the sensitivity and usefulness of the BEC MN assay in the assessment of genetic susceptibility of patients with CKD.