Sports genetics is an important biomarker used to determine talent and prepare suitable training programs to increase sportive performance today. The purpose of this review is to summarize the relationship between sports performance and BDNF and to create a data source for research in this field. While genetic differences enable some individuals to reach their objectives within a very short period of time, it may enable others to reach optimum performance after a long period of time. The Human Genome Project (HGP) has provided important information to the world of science on the human genome. With the completion of this project, we learned possess important information on the approximate number, locations, structures and functions of genes. Examination of the relationship between genetic structure and sports genetics has gained further importance following the completion of HGP. Approximately 250 genes are thought to have an impact on human performance. One of these genes is the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF), that sports scientists have been interested in recently and is thought to affect sports performance. BDNF is thought to become a new research topic in the field of sports science and one of the important target genes for sportive performance. In conclusion, the changing types of exercise may differentiate the serum effect of BDNF, however, it can be said that a clear relationship regarding performance has not yet been determined.