Heavy metal contamination in surface sediments of Gokcekaya Dam Lake, Eskisehir, Turkey


AKIN B., Kirmizigul O.

ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH SCIENCES, vol.76, no.11, 2017 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 76 Issue: 11
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12665-017-6744-0
  • Journal Name: ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH SCIENCES
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus
  • Keywords: Heavy metals, Lake sediments, Enrichment factor, Geoaccumulation index, Sediment quality guidelines, PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS, RIVER SEDIMENTS, MULTIVARIATE-ANALYSIS, SURFICIAL SEDIMENTS, DIGESTION METHODS, BOTTOM SEDIMENTS, TRACE-ELEMENTS, URBAN SOILS, IZMIT BAY, POLLUTION

Abstract

The present study to find seasonal (September 2010-June 2011) heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Cu, Fe, As) contamination and the origins thereof in surface sediments of Gokcekaya Dam Lake, as constructed on Sakarya River, the third-longest river in Turkey and the largest river of the Northwestern Anatolia. Upon analyses for the purpose thereof, heavy metal contamination in annual average concentrations in the lake sediment varied, respectively, as Fe > Zn > Cr > Ni > Cu > Pb > Co > As > Cd. Statistical assessments performed in order to see whether the average values of the heavy metal contamination as measured at stations placed in the lake changed by seasonal periods. There found statistically significant differences especially in Cd, Zn, and Pb between seasonal periods. In accordance with the Sediment Quality Index, Gokcekaya Dam Lake sediment was classified as "highly polluted" in terms of the amount of anthropogenic contaminants of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index values (I-geo) were calculated in order to geochemically interpret the source of contamination due to heavy metal concentration in the lake sediment and the level of pollution. The As, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni Pb, and Zn values demonstrated that the sediment was rich for anthropogenic contaminants. The lake was found especially rich for arsenic (14.97-34.70 mg/kg) and lead (68.75-98.65 mg/kg) in accordance with annual average values. In general the lake was geochemically characterized as "moderately contaminated" in terms of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn content.