© The Author(s) 2021.Electrorheological (ER) fluids generate mechanical responses to applied electric field strength via changing their rheological properties from liquid to solid and vice-versa reversibly. As a result of this, ER fluids can be used in the industrial vibration damping systems. In order to increase applicability of ER fluids, it is necessary to understand electric field induced polarization and ER mechanism of different materials. Therefore, the aim of this study is to illuminate ER and vibration damping properties of polyanthracene (PAT), which is a new material for ER studies. PAT was synthesized from anthracene and characterized by several techniques namely: ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, particle size, SEM image, four-point probe conductivity, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. A series of PAT/silicone oil (SO) dispersions having various concentrations were prepared and subjected to dielectric and ER tests. Then, the colloidal stabilities of 20% PAT/SO and 20% PAT/SO/TritonX systems were determined. Dynamic viscoelastic data obtained by the oscillation tests showed that viscous behavior was dominant under zero electric field, whereas elastic behavior was prevailing under external electric field strength and highlighting the vibration damping characteristics of PAT/SO dispersion. In the creep-recovery measurements, the highest %recovery was recorded to be 62% indicating potential industrial use of PAT/SO dispersion.