Infants with iron deficiency had lower scores when tested for mental and motor development than their peers with better iron status. The aim of this study was to examine cerebral blood flow velocity in infants with iron deficiency anemia. Thirty-six infants (27 male, 9 female) with iron deficiency anemia, aged 6 to 36 months were divided into 2 groups according to the hemoglobin (Hb) values [group 1 (n = 23) Hb < 10 g/dL and group 2 (n = 13) 11 > Hb >= 10g/dL]. In anterior and middle cerebral arteries only end-diastolic velocity (EDV) was increased in group 1 as compared with group 2 (P = 0.05 and P = 0.016, respectively), whereas in posterior cerebral artery both EDV and peak-systolic velocity were different between the groups (P = 0.024 and P = 0.004). Both peak-systolic velocity and EDV showed significant correlation with Hb level in the posterior cerebral artery (r = -0.38, P = 0.023 and r = - 0.35, P = 0.037) but not in the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. Increased cerebral blood flow velocities in children with lower Hb values may be due to increased cardiac output, decreased vascular resistivity caused by anemia.