Background. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is a curable treatment modality for hematologic disorders. Transplant-related mortality remains high despite prominent scientific and technologic improvements. In consideration with the potential impact of patient- and disease-related factors on transplant outcome, this retrospective study was performed to investigate the predictive role of pretransplant HCT-composite risk (HCT-CR) score in alloHCT recipients. Methods. A total of 313 patients with acute leukemia (male/female: 192/121; median age, 36 [18-71] years) were included in this study. The study cohort was divided into 2 subgroups based on pretransplant HCT-CR categories. The HCT-CRlo group included low-risk patients, and the HCT-CRint-hi group consisted of intermediate-, high-, and very high-risk patients. Results. In the whole cohort, overall survival (OS) and 5-year OS were found to be 32.2% and 45.1%, respectively. Probability of OS was significantly better in the HCT-CRlo group compared with the HCT-CRint-hi group (P < .001). Leukemia-free survival (LFS) and 3-year LFS were 59.5% and 65.1%, respectively. Probability of LFS was better in the HCT-CRlo group compared with the HCT-CRint-hi group (P = .001). Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and 3-year NRM were estimated to be 38.1% and 27.5%, respectively. Probability of NRM was significantly higher in the HCT-CRint-higroup compared with the HCT-CRlo group (P = .012). In multivariate analysis, HCT-CR was shown to have significant prognostic impact in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients (P = .023; hazard ratio, 2.613; 95% CI, 1.142-5.982). Conclusion. Pretransplant evaluation of patient- and disease-related factors is essential for the accurate prediction of posttransplant survival. Further efforts to evolve current criteria for pretransplant risk assessment would eventuate in better transplant outcomes.