We retrospectively analyzed the data of 175 patients who underwent autologous (n = 69) or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) (n = 106) including 19 (27.5%) and 38 (35.8%) recipients who had bone marrow fibrosis (BMF) prior to transplantation, respectively. We investigated the effects of BMF on engraftment, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), early posttransplant complications, and survival. Pretransplantation BMF did not delay engraftment and showed no impact either on early posttransplant complications or on the development of acute and/or chronic GVHD. Probability of 1-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of autologous HCT recipients were similar, namely 76.7% versus 88.6% (P > .005),and 26.33% versus 16.5% (P > .05) among patients with versus without fibrosis, respectively. In allogeneic HCT recipients, the probability of 1-year OS was 35.2% among patients with versus 48.9% among those without fibrosis (P = .004) PFS at 1 year was inferior among allogeneic HCT recipients with BMF: 27.8% versus 51.2% (P = .0008). Cox regression analysis revealed BMF to be independently associated with age, Sorror comorbidity index, primary disease, and disease status during HCT (P = .045).