Short communication: Investigation of aflatoxin M1 levels in infant follow-on milks and infant formulas sold in the markets of Ankara, Turkey

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Er B., Demirhan B., Yentur G.

Journal of Dairy Science, vol.97, no.6, pp.3328-3331, 2014 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 97 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Doi Number: 10.3168/jds.2013-7831
  • Journal Name: Journal of Dairy Science
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.3328-3331
  • Keywords: aflatoxin M-1, aflatoxin B-1, infant food, ELISA, BABY FOODS, OCHRATOXIN, PRODUCTS, CONTAMINATION
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


Aflatoxins are fungal toxins known to be carcinogenic and are classified as food contaminants. This study was performed to investigate aflatoxin (AF) M1 levels in baby foods sold in Ankara (Turkey) and to evaluate the obtained results according to the Turkish Food Codex (TFC). For this purpose, a total of 84 baby food samples (50 follow-on milks and 34 infant formulas) were obtained from different markets in Ankara and the presence of AFM1 in the samples was analyzed by ELISA. In 32 (38.1%) of 84 infant food samples, the presence of AFM1 was detected in concentrations ranging between 0.0055 and 0.0201μg/kg. The mean level (±standard error) of AFM1 was found to be 0.0089±0.0006μg/kg in positive infant follow-on milks. Aflatoxin M1 was detected in only 1 infant formula sample (2.94%) at a concentration of 0.0061μg/kg. The extrapolated levels of AFB1 contamination in feedstuffs were calculated based on levels of AFM1 in baby food samples. The data estimating AFB1 contamination in dairy cattle feedstuff indicate that contamination may range from 0.3410 to 1.2580μg/kg, with the mean level (±standard error) being 0.5499±0.0385μg/kg, which is lower than the level set by the TFC and European Union regulations (5μg/kg). According to the obtained results, the levels of AFM1 in analyzed samples were within the allowed limit (0.025μg/kg) set in the TFC. Low levels of AFM1 in infant follow-on milks and infant formula samples obtained during the study do not pose a health risk to infants. © 2014 American Dairy Science Association.