Adaptive Hybrid Application Protocol for IoT

Creative Commons License

Özdoğan E., Erdem O. A.

ACTA POLYTECHNICA HUNGARICA, vol.21, no.2, pp.271-290, 2024 (SCI-Expanded)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 21 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.271-290
  • Gazi University Affiliated: Yes


The Internet of Things (IoT) solutions are demonstrating a significant impact in various sectors. These solutions encompass diverse applications, ranging from machine-tomachine communication to human-to-machine interaction within the same system. Various types of IoT application protocols have been developed to address these needs. While some IoT protocols enable direct communication between devices, others rely on server-based communication. Both forms of communication can coexist within the same IoT solution. However, utilizing multiple protocols in low-capacity IoT nodes can result in performance degradation. In this study, an adaptive protocol is proposed, which combines server-based and direct access protocols. This study also explains the working principle of the proposed protocol and compares its functionality with MQTT using OPNET and real environment. It was observed that the proposed protocol remained functional even in the event of a server failure. Furthermore, the protocol was found to be efficient in terms of bandwidth usage. Conversely, it exhibited lower latency in the direct communication method. Although the proposed protocol had slightly higher latency in server-based communication, it remained operational. Keywords: Adaptive IoT Protocol; Application Layer IoT Protocols; IoT Messaging Protocols; IoT Protocol Design; Protocol Simulation 1 Introduction Internet of Things (IoT) environments are becomi