in: Advances and Applications Through Fungal Nanobiotechnology, R. Prasad, Editor, Springer Nature, Zürich, pp.25-46, 2016
Nanotechnology involves the study and use of materials under the 100 nm scale, exploiting the different physiochemical properties exhibited by these materials at the nanoscale level. Microorganisms are the best model and role of action for the nano/biotechnological applications. This technology has become increasingly important for the biotechnology and the related sectors. Promising applications have been already employed in the areas of drug delivery systems using bioactive nanoencapsulation, biosensors to detect and quantify pathogens, chemical and organic compounds, alteration of food compositions, and high-performance sensors and film to preserve fruits and vegetables. Moreover, the taste of food and food safety can be improved by new nano-materials from the microbiological sources. The huge benefits from this technology have led to increases in the market investments in nanoscience and nanoproducts in several areas.
Fungi are the common source of industrial enzymes by cause of their excellent capacity for extracellular protein production. These industrial enzymes are applied in pulp and paper chemical and biomedical products, food, starch, textile, drinks, baking, leather, detergents and animal feed. For industrial application, immobilization of enzymes has advantages due to their improvement in the stability and storage ability because of reuse, easy separation of enzymes from the reaction mixture, a possible increase in pH and thermal stability and low product cost. The reusability and the cost of immobilized enzymes display a great advantage comparing to those of free enzymes. Using nanoscale structures for immobilization is preferred due to an increase in the functional surface area to maximize enzyme loading and reducing diffusion limitations. In addition, the physical characteristics of nanostructure such as enhanced diffusion, thermal stability, irradiation resistance and support mobility can impact catalytic activity of immobilized enzymes. This chapter deals with the strategies, challenges, applications and benefits of fungal nanobiotechnology in different areas and, also, antifungal activity of nanoparticles from the microbial sources.
Fungal nanobiotechnology based agro-industries and environmental spheres created the enormous range of possible applications of fungi. The successful and promising studies in these areas have provided a better understanding of fungi in nanobiotechnological disciplines. The utilization of fungi in the environmental biotechnology is a more recent development with many advantages related to bioremediation, treatment of industrial wastes and biotransformation of specific compounds. The objective of this chapter is to summarize recent developments in fungal nanobiotechnology and fungal synthesis of nanoparticles.
The manufacture and use of dyes are widespread industries. The utilization of these pigments is an integral part of almost all manufacturing processes. Wastewaters are produced during the synthesis and use of dyes. Decolorization of water is a significant and a critical part of wastewater treatment processes. Furthermore, metal contaminated industrial wastewater treatment is also acknowledged as one of the bionanotechnological issues. Microorganisms, especially fungi, are possible and strong candidates for heavy metal removal from wastewaters due to its binding ability to a toxic metal or metal ion. Thus, nanobiotechnological aspects of fungal studies in wastewater treatment applications are explained in a separate section in this chapter.
Nanoparticles can be used in various areas such as medicine, biosensors, environmental treatment and so on. These could be produced by conventional chemical and physical methods although conventional methods have some disadvantages. Therefore, a relatively simple, economical and nonhazardous (i.e., eco-friendly) method must be used in order to synthesize various nanoparticles. Biotechnological methods have several advantages over conventional ones. Nanoparticles can be synthesized by using various organisms such as fungi and bacteria. Here, some of the fungi used in the synthesis of nanoparticles are reviewed. The mechanism of bionanoparticle synthesis and biological activity of these nanoparticles are also discussed.