In this research, the morphological, anatomical, palynological, and cytological characteristics of the section Alopecuroidei DC. species belonging to genus Astragalus L. in Turkey were studied. As a result of this study, the members of the Alopecuroidei section represented by 22 taxa were evaluated under 24 taxa. While 3 taxa were reduced to synonyms, 4 new taxa have been added to the literature. Those are Astragalus aytatchii Akan & Civelek, A. ovabaghensis Akan & Aytac, A. bahcesarayensis Akan, Firat & Ekici, and A. ekicii H. Duman & Akan. In addition, it was determined that A. edmondi (Kuntze) Sheld. and A. maximus Willd. var. dasysemius Chamb. & Matthews were synonymies of A. decurrens Boiss. and A. alopecurus Pall., respectively. Although A. macrocephalus Willd. subsp. macrocephalus, A. erythrotaenius Boiss., and A. bracteosus Boiss. & Noe were previously stated to be endemic for Turkey, they are now found not to be endemic. Moreover, it was decided that Astragalus trichocalyx Trautv. is illegitimate and the name of A. petropolitanus Sheld. is valid. In this study, Astragalus genuflexus Freyn & Sint. was reevaluated as a distinct species.