The external occipital protuberance: Can it be used as a criterion in the determination of sex?

Gulekon I., Turgut H.

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, vol.48, no.3, pp.513-516, 2003 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 48 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2003
  • Doi Number: 10.1520/jfs2002183
  • Page Numbers: pp.513-516


Sex determination of a corpse can be problematic in cases where the body is damaged. Useful criteria would assist in the identification of sex in such cases, The goal of this study is to determine the usefulness of the external occipital protuberance (EOP) in the determination of sex, especially in lateral cranium radiographs. The types and configurations of the EOP were investigated on normal lateral cranium radiographs of 1000 subjects (500 males and 500 females) and 694 dry-skull remains (371 males and 323 females) from a 16th Century Anatolian population for the purpose of sex determination. In the radiographic examination, the incidence of less prominent (Type 1) EOP is found to be 85.4% in females whereas 17.8% in males. The spine type (Type 3) EOP is found to be 63.4% in males and to be 4.2% in females. On the other hand, studies of dry-skull remains revealed the incidence of Type 1 EOP to be 67.5% in females and Type 3 EOP to be 55.2% in males. The crest type (Type 2) EOP is approximately equal in both sexes and is found to be less valuable for sex determination in both groups.