Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) is an occlusive vascular disease tradition ally known to be almost exclusive to young male smokers. The disease was con sidered to be extremely rare in women, seen only as isolated, novel case reports in the literature. In the past decade, however, a dramatic increase in the inci dence of female TAO has been observed. In this paper the authors report 7 cases of clinically and angiographically verified female TAO. The world literature in regard to the diagnostic criteria, changing incidence, and etiology is reviewed. They conclude that the increased use of tobacco among young women in the past two to three decades is responsi ble for this dramatic change. © 1993, Sage Publications. All rights reserved.