Ictal pouting ('Chapeau de gendarme') in three pediatric cases with cortical dysplasia

Cebeci D., ARHAN E. , HIRFANOĞLU T. , Karalok Z. S. , ERÇELEBİ H. , Dedeoglu O., ...More

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRIC NEUROLOGY, vol.26, pp.82-88, 2020 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 26
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2019.11.005
  • Page Numbers: pp.82-88


Ictal pouting (Chapeau de gendarme sign) can be described as an inverted smile. It consists of a turned down mouth with the contraction of the chin, wrinkling of the lips and symmetrical lowering of the labial commissures. This shape resembles the gendarme's hat during Napoleon I's time. Chapeau de gendarme sign is frequently seen in frontal and temporal lobe seizures. Focal cortical dysplasias are intrinsically epileptogenic foci and are frequently seen in patients with ictal pouting in seizure semiology. In this report, we analyzed clinical data, video EEG recordings and brain imagings of three children presenting with ictal pouting semiology in whom patients' magnetic resonans images (MRIs) or positron emission tomographies (PETs) were positive or doubtful for FCD in all. In case 1 and 2 the epileptogenic zones were temporal or temporoinsular. In these patients, with involvement of temporal lobe, dystonia and automatisms were seen in the seizure semiology after chapeau de gendarme sign. In case 3 with frontal lobe origin, hypermotor movements were seen after ictal pouting. In the patients 1 and 2, the cortical dysplasias were in temporal lobe. In patient 3, PET demonstrated hypometabolism on left inferior frontal gyrus but we couldn't verify this finding with MRIs. Ictal pouting (Chapeau de gendarme sign) is a distinct seizure semiology that can often be overlooked and coexist with focal cortical thickening. We suggest that focal cortical dysplasias should be searched in patients with ictal pouting particularly in those with refractory focal seizures. (C) 2019 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.