The genus Rhabdosciadium Boiss. is represented by five species in the world. Three of these five species are naturally spread in Iran and the others are found in Turkey. Rhabdosciadium is represented with Rhabdosciadium microcalycinum Hand.-Mazz. and R. oligocarpum (Post ex Boiss.) Hedge & J.M.Lamond in Turkey. The comprehensive morphologic description of these two species' samples collected from Elazig and Osmaniye is made. In addition, the fruit and pollens are examined by the electron microscope (SEM) and their diagnostic characteristics are evaluated. Using the Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) as the DNA finger printing method, the molecular relationship between both of the species are examined. Also, the molecular connection of the Rhabdosciadium Boiss. species with the Echinophora L., Myrrhoides Heister ex Fabr., Chaerophyllum L. and Anthriscus Pers. genera is studied and their phylogenetic relations are shown with the dendogram. In addition to this information their distribution map is given.