Although the use of nanoparticles for neuro-diagnostic and neurotherapeutic purposes provides superior benefits than the conventional approaches, it may be potentially toxic in central nervous system. In this respect, nanotechnological research focuses on nanoneurotoxicity-nanoneurosafety concepts. Despite these efforts, nanoparticles (NPs) may cause neurotoxicity, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration by penetrating the brain-olfactory route and blood-brain barrier (BBB). Indeed, due to their unique structures nanomaterials can easily cross biological barriers, thus avoid drug delivery problems. Despite the advancement of nanotechnology for designing therapeutic agents, toxicity of these nanomaterials is still a concern. Activation of neurons by astrocytic glutamate is a result of NPs-mediated astrocyte-neuron crosstalk. Increased extracellular glutamate levels due to enhanced synthesis and reduced reuptake may induce neuronal damage by abnormal activation of extrasynaptic N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits. NMDAR is the key factor that mediates the disturbances in intracellular calcium homeostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction and generation of reactive oxygen species in NPs exposed neurons. While some NPs cause neuronal death by inducing NMDARs, others may be neurotoxic through the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors or protect the neurons via blocking NMDARs. However, mechanisms of dual effects of NPs, neurotoxicity or neuroprotection are not precisely known. Some NPs present neuroprotective effect either by selectively inhibiting extrasynaptic subunit of NMDARs or by attenuating oxidative stress. NPs-related pro-inflammatory activation of microglia contributes to the dysfunction and cytotoxicity in neurons. Therefore, investigation of the interaction of NPs with the neuronal signaling molecules and neuronal receptors is necessary for the better understanding of the neurotoxicity or neurosafety of nanomaterials.