Polyurethane (PU) ureteral stents have been widely used as biomedical devices to aid the flow of the urine. Due to the biofilm formation and encrustation complications it has been hindered their long term clinical usage. To overcome these complications, in this study, cationic polyethyleneimine (PEI) brushes grafted on PU stents and their performances were tested both in a dynamic biofilm reactor system (in vitro) and in a rat model (in vivo). Thus, we hypothesized that PEI brushes inhibit bacterial adhesion owing to the dynamic motion of brushes in liquid environment. In addition, cationic structure of PEI disrupts the membrane and so kills the bacteria on time of contact. Cationic PEI brushes decreased the biofilm formation up to 2 orders of magnitude and approximately 50% of encrustation amount in respect to unmodified PU, in vitro. In addition, according to Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) results, approximately 90% of encrustation was inhibited on in vivo animal models. Decrease in encrustation was clearly observed on the stents obtained from rat model, by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Also, histological evaluations showed that; PEI brush grafting decreased host tissue inflammation in close relation to decrease in biofilm formation and encrustation. As a results; dual effect of anti adhesive and contact-killing antibacterial strategy showed high efficiency on PEI brushes grafted PU stents both in vitro and in vivo. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.