Exploration of unexplored habitats for novel actinobacteria with high bioactivity potential holds great promise in the search for novel entities. During the course of isolation of actinobacteria from desert soils, four actinobacteria, designated as 5K548T, 7K502T, 16K309T and 16K404T, were isolated from the Karakum Desert and their bioactivity potential as well as taxonomic provenances were revealed by com-prehensive genome analyses. Pairwise sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA genes indicated that the four strains are representatives of putatively novel taxa within the prolific actinobacterial genus Saccharopolyspora. The strains have typical chemotaxonomic characteristics of the genus Saccharopolyspora by having meso-diaminopimelic acid as diagnostic diaminoacid, arabinose, galactose and ribose as whole-cell sugars. Consistent with this assignment, all of the isolates contained phos-phatidylcholine in their polar lipid profiles and MK-9(H4) as the predominant menaquinone. The sizes of the genomes of the isolates ranged from 6.0 to 10.2 Mb and the associated G + C contents from 69.6 to 69.7 %. Polyphasic characterizations including determination of overall genome relatedness indices revealed that the strains are representatives of four novel species in the genus Saccharopolyspora. Consequently, isolates 5K548T, 7K502T, 16K404T and 16K309T are proposed as novel Saccharopolyspora species for which the names of Saccharopolyspora karakumensis sp. nov., Saccharopolyspora elongata sp. nov., Saccharopolyspora aridisoli sp. nov. and Saccharopolyspora terrae sp. nov. are proposed, respectively. Comprehensive genome analysis for biosynthetic gene clusters showed that the strains have high poten-tial for novel secondary metabolites. Moreover, the strains harbour many antimicrobial resistance genes providing more evidence for their potentiality for bioactive metabolites. (c) 2021 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.