Nanotechnology has a wide field of possible applications that includes the design, manufacture and application of nanomaterials and nanostructures. The selection of materials is an issue of significant importance to the construction industry. Concrete, steel and wood materials are considered as the main load-bearing materials in building construction and due to nanotechnological developments advanced application possibilities have been provided. The aim of this study is to systematically examine the nanotechnological developments on concrete, steel and wood which are used as load-bearing materials. The materials' properties and the steps that enable these properties are considered and the advantages brought by the use of nanotechnology are tabulated. The differences in the molecular level of materials exhibiting behaviors different from those of conventional scale equivalents are shown.