Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is one of the leading causes of esophageal dysfunction in children and young adults. Molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of EoE are revealed and targeted therapies can be developed and evaluated in preclinical and clinical studies. The current treatment strategies for patients focus on diet modification to control the inflammation and pathological tissue repair, to eliminate the antigenic stimulation of the T helper type 2 cell (Th2) immune pathway. Dietary modification is recommended for its efficacy and safety in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. Various dietary modifications include elemental diet, empirical elimination diets and elimination diets based on allergy testing. These dietary modifications are difficult to maintain due to their negative effects on quality of life, such as poor flavor, severe dietary restrictions, and the need for specific products. Therefore, the complexity of treatment strategies and frequent follow-up require a multidisciplinary approach to optimize patient care.