Despite the significant efforts towards applying improved non-destructive and label-free measurements of biomolecular structures of lipid-based gene delivery vectors, little is achieved in terms of their structural relevance in gene transfections. Better understanding of structure-activity relationships of lipid-DNA complexes and their gene expression efficiencies thus becomes an essential issue. Raman scattering offers a complimentary measurement technique for following the structural transitions of both DNA and lipid vesicles employed for their transfer. This work describes the use of SERS coupled with light scattering approaches for deciphering the bioelectrochemical phase formations between nucleic acids and lipid vesicles within lipoplexes and their surface parameters that could influence both the uptake of non-viral gene carriers and the endocytic routes of interacting cells. As promising non-viral alternatives of currently employed risky viral systems or highly cytotoxic cationic liposomes, complexations of both nucleic acids and zwitterionic lipids in the presence of Mg2+ were studied applying colloidal Ag nanoparticles. It is shown that the results could be employed in further conformational characterizations of similar polyelectrolyte gene delivery systems.