High risk patients with active fungal infection who had undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with the support of granulocyte transfusions (GTX) as an adjunct to antifungal agents are reviewed retrospectively. Patients requiring immediate allogeneic HSCT for their primary hematological disorders (two severe aplastic anemia, one T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in second complete remission, one acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-in first complete remission, one T-ALL in refractory relapse) but were denied by other transplant programs due to active invasive fungal infections had undergone HSCT with the support of GTX at the stem cell transplantation unit of Gazi University. Five patients who had undergone six transplants were included in the study and received a total of 38 (3-13) granulocyte transfusions during these six transplants. The median granulocyte concentration was 3.4 x 10(11) per apheresis bag. Full clinical and radiological recovery was achieved in three of the five high risk patients with active invasive fungal infection with the combination of antifungal agents and GTX. Even a very high risk patient with aplastic anemia who had undergone two consecutive transplants due to secondary graft failure was also cured of his primary disease despite the presence of multiple pulmonary fungus balls. Three of the five patients with very high risk features due to the underlying hematological disease and the associated active fungal infection were rescued with allogeneic HSCT performed with the support of GTX combined with antifungal agents. Despite the limitations of this report due to its retrospective nature, it suggests that GTX might be an alternative in patients with active fungal infections who otherwise are denied by the transplant programs. However, prospective randomized studies are required to draw a solid conclusion regarding the role of GTX in HSCT recipients in desperate situations such as active fungal infections.