The cement dust deposition can cause environmental pollution and heavy metal contamination, which negatively impacts soil nutrient availability and hence crop productivity. Thus, this study evaluates the impact of cement dust emissions on soil elemental compositions in different tillage managements. In this study, composite soil samples were taken from conventional tillage (CT), and notill (NT) managed fields under wheat-sugar beet (potato)-fallow cropping sequence. Soil samples were randomly collected from 0-30 cm depth in three replications and different distances (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 km) from a cement plant. Soil pH, clay, and CaCO3 contents were higher under CT than those under NT, whereas; sand and K contents were greater under NT management. The CT significantly decreased K content compared to those under NT by 5% in 2014. In addition, soil Mg+2 content decreased (p < 0.002) by increasing the distance. Soil Mg+2 content at 1 km was significantly higher than those at 4 km (by 3%), 2 km (by 4%), 8 km (by 10%), 6 km (by 10%), and 10 km (by 19%). Similarly, distance significantly influence soil Cu (p < 0.001), Zn+2 (p < 0.008), and Mn+2 (p < 0.0002), and K (p < 0.001), however, there were not any clear trend according to increases in distance from cement plant. The moving average of soil bacteria and fungi populations and their ratios have shown that the bacteria and fungi populations increased with distance, where increases in the fungi population under CT were more dramatic than those under NT management. Moreover, the principal component analysis showed that soils under NT were differently influenced by cement dust emission than CT managed soils. In conclusion, cement dust accumulation under both tillage practices negatively influenced soil elemental compositions and related microbial populations.